Lungs are the breathing organs of body and muated cells proliferation in lungs leads to lung cancer
Two main categories. They grow and metastasize differentely
Non Small Cell Lung Cancers – 85-90%. The most common subcategories are adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma.
Small Cell Lung Cancer- 10-15%. More aggressive and metastasize early.
Despite of poor prognosis, Lung Cancer is curable in early stages.
Lung cancer is most common cause of cancer related mortality worldwide
In India, lung cancer constitutes 5.9 per cent of all new cancer cases and 8.1 per cent of all cancer related deaths in both sexes.
As many as 2,500 persons die every day due to tobacco-related diseases in India
Incidence of lung cancer is increasing more in metros with poor air quality
Smoking Tobacco - Smokers have 10-30 times more risk than nonsmokers. All forms of tobacco use are associated with lung, oral cavity and throat cancers. Risk increase with number and years. Stpping smoking reduce the risk of cancer.
Asbestos and other chemical carcinogens
Age – more risk after >40years
Chronic Lung disease
Biomass fuel such as wood and coal burning
Despite of poor prognosis, Lung Cancer is curable in early stages. So every attempt should be made to identify this disease in early stages.
Screening is not recommended for everyone, but for some people with a heavy or long smoking history, screening can save lives.
Age group 55-80 yrs with a history of smoking
United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommend annual screening for lung cancer with low dose computed tomography in adults aged 55-80 years who have a 30 pack year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within past 15 years. Screening should be discontinued once a person has not smoked for 15 years or develops a health problem that substantially limits life expectancy or the ability or willingness to have curative lung surgery.
Lung cancers are small in early stage and produce no symptoms. If advanced stages most people have one or more symptoms. If anyone have suspicion, they should immediately meet with their doctor for concern.
Cough that is persistent or gets worse
Chest pain that is often worse with deep breathing, coughing, or laughing
Hoarseness of voice
Coughing out blood or rust-colored sputum (spit or phlegm)
Recurring infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia that don’t go away easily
New onset of wheezing
If lung cancer spreads to distant organs, it may cause Bone pain, headache/ seizures, jaundice
Most coomonly done investigations includes-
Chest X ray
CT Scan/ PET CT scan: to assess primary disease extent and distant spread.
Biospy: to confirm the diagnosis and type of cancer. Either bronchoscopic or CT guided or from a superficaial lymph node.
Additional tests may also be done as per requirement of treating oncologist. Some of genetic and molecular markers used commonly include programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations, and c-ROS oncogene 1 (ROS1) translocations. In this era of rapidly changing research, biomarkers and targeted treatment options will continue to change.
Non Small Cell Lung Cancer: simplified staging-
stage 1: Cancer is limitede lung.
stage 1: Cancer is limitede lung.
stage 2: Cancer in the lung and nearby lymph nodes.
stage 3: Cancer from lung spread in mediastinal lymph nodes.
stage 3A : lymph nodes on same side of the chest as primary cancer site.
stage 3B : Cancer spread to lymph nodes on the opposite side of the chest or above the collarbone/ clavicle.
stage 4 : Cancer has spread to both lungs, into the area around the lungs, or to distant organs.
Small Cell Lung Cancer:- grow very fast.
Limited stage - limited to one lung and nodes on same side of chest
Extensive Stage - spread beyond or distant organs
Lung cancer is a complex cancer to treat even in early stages. Both disease status and patient’s performance status needs to assess properly and then treatment is advised. It is always beneficial to have physical activity/ breathing exercises and proper diet since to the start of evaluation.
Surgery - Surgical resection is the curative treatment for lung cancer are usually done in stage 1 and stage 2. Surgery usually invoves removal of lobe of lung (Lobectomy) or one lung (Pneumonectomy) as per extent along with removal of mediastinal lymph nodes. Whenever feasible it is preferred treatment, so a patient with lung cancer must be seen by a Surgical Oncologist to properly assess operability and curability. Sometimes surgical intervention is also required for palliation like thoracic cavity fluid drainage.
Chemotherapy - helps in long term control of disease in early stages. In stage 4 chemotherapy or targeted therapy is the main treatment.
Radiation Therapy - High energy Xray beams are used to kill cancer cells.
Targeted treatment - designed to attack the cancer cells by attaching or blocking targets (specific proteins) that appear on the surface of the cancer cells.
Immunotherapy - Immunotherapy has become the newest method of treatment for lung cancer in advance stages.
Small cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) treatmet mainly includes radiation therapy. In most cases, the cancer will be too advanced for surgery.
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Lung cancer begins when abnormal cells in the lungs grow out of control. They can invade nearby tissues and form tumors. Lung cancer can start anywhere in the lungs and can affect any part of the respiratory system. Cancer cells can spread or metastasize to lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Contact Cancer Surgery Gurugram surgery gurugram for Lung Cancer treatment in Gurgaon.
The 5-year survival rate for all people with all types of lung cancer is 21%. The 5-year survival rate for men is 17%. The 5-year survival rate for women is 24%. The 5-year survival rate for NSCLC is 25%, while that for small cell lung cancer is 7%. Contact Cancer Surgery Gurugram surgery gurugram for lung Cancer treatment in Gurgaon.
According to Best doctor for lung Cancer in Gurgaon SCLC is the most aggressive form of lung cancer. It usually starts in the respiratory tubes (bronchi) in the center of the chest. Although cancer cells are small, they grow very quickly and form large tumors.
Best doctor for lung Cancer in Gurgaon says in its early stages, lung cancer usually does not have symptoms that you can see or feel. Later, it often causes cough, wheezing and chest pain. But there are other, lesser-known effects that can show, top - places you might not expect. (Of course, lung cancer is not the only thing that can cause these symptoms.)