Breast cancer is the cancer arising from the cells of the breast. Malignant tumors are the tumor which have potential to invade other tissues and spread to other organs of the body.
It’s important to understand that most breast lumps are benign means they grow inside breast tissue and do not spread to other parts of the body.
Breast are milk producing specialized glands in women. Lymph vessels carry a clear fluid called lymph into the small bean-shaped structures which contain immune cells called lymph nodes. Breast Lymph vessels drain into the lymph nodes in axilla. Although rare but breast cancer can develop in males also.
AGE -Mostly beyond 50 years. There is increase in number of breast cancer cases in 30-40 years age group in India.
Gender - Being female is a risk factor for breast cancer
Genetic - : Women who have certain mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a higher chance of developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or both
Family History - If any woman in a family is having Breast cancer, then it increases the risk of other individuals in the family.Obesity/Overweight
Menstrual History -Having first period before age 12 and late menopause increases the risk of breast cancer
Pregnancy -Never been pregnant is a risk factor for breast cancer. Also first child birth after 35 years increase the risk compared to early child bearing.
Hormone replacement therapy for longer periods
Certain Benign breast diseases like atypical ductal or lobular hyperplasia
First Pregnancy before 30 years, Breast feeding, physical activity are considered as protective factors.
Mammography -American cancer society recommend mammography for screening:
Women 40-44 years: start screening with yearly mammogram..
Women 45- 54 : should get mammograms every year.
Women ≥ 55 : mammogram every other year, or they can continue yearly mammograms and should continue as long as health is good.
Breast Self Examination :: advised to detect any small lump or change which could be sign of early breast cancer. It is easy to learn and and any abnormality should be reported to the oncologist.
It is done with palm of figures in rolling motion in all parts of both breasts. Can be done at the time of bathing/ shower.
Stand in front of the mirror with both arms by the side of the body
Look in front of the mirror with both arms over the hips
Look in front of the mirror with both arms above head
Feel Behind the nipple
MRI : advised in genetically predisposed/ very high risk individuals starting at younger age.
Lump - most common symptom. Lump mostly appear in breast but it can be in axilla/ armpit because of lymph nodes
Dimpling on the breast
Sunken or inverted nipple
Redness or scaling of the skin of the breast, nipple or areola
Discharge from nipples especially if blood stained.
Pain or ulcer over tumor
Symptoms due to spread in other organs like weight loss, bony pain, headache breathlessness
Mammography - use low dose x ray to detect tumor location within breast and opposite breast.
Ultrasound : better in younger population <35 years
Biopsy : Diagnose and characterize breast cancer
CECT/ Bone Scan/ PET CECT : to look for distance organ spread and extent.
Surgery - Mainstay of curative treatment. Following surgeries are done to cure breast cancer-
Wide Excision/ Lumpectomy :Tumor along with normal surrounding tissue is excised. Sufficient for benign tumours of the breast. Benign phylloid tumours require a much wider resection margin of 2-3 cm.
Simple Mastectomy :A Breast tumour along with whole breast tissue and nipple areola are excised. Axilla is not addressed in this surgery. Usually done for ductal carcinoma in a situ and phylloid tumour.
Modified Radical Mastectomy :Breast with a tumour at appropriate margins and nipple-areola complex is excised along with axillary lymph node dissection. 10-15 axillary lymph nodes are considered adequate as per the guidelines. All stations of lymph nodes (I-III) suspected of having lymph nodes should be excised. Most commonly done surgery for breast cancer.
Breast Conservation Surgery :As the understanding of tumour biology is increasing and as the technologies are increasing, oncology surgery has improved to provide more and more functional results. Patient sections play's a very important role. A suitable tumour with surrounding breast tumour with negative margins is excised. Axillary lymph nodes are removed as standard.
Certain Recent Advances includes:
Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy :Sentinel lymph node is the first draining level lymph node of a breast tumour. Usually, a radioactive dye is injected around a tumour before surgery and blue dye is injected in breast tissue at the time of surgery. Gamma camera probe is used to identify the radioactivity and targeted node identified. It is excised and sent for the frozen section during surgery. If tumour cells are absent then there is no need to address higher axillary lymph nodes. If tumours cells are identified than complete axillary surgery is done.
Skin Sparing Mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction :Preserve normal body image.
Chemotherapy :Chemotherapy serves three major purposes -
As Adjuvant therapy for good long term control after surgery.
As Neo-adjuvant therapy :given before surgery in locally advance disease to control micrometastasis and decrease tumor.
As Palliative in metastatic disease whencancer has spread to other parts of the body. Chemotherapy now provides a meaningful control even in stage IV disease
Hormone threrapy : used in hormone receptor positive cases I.e. ER+/ PR +
Targetted therapy : in cases which having postive specific targets like Her2+
⦁ Maintaining ideal body weight
⦁ Regular Exercises
⦁ Avoid smoking and alcohol
⦁ Breast-feed the baby
⦁ Avoid unnecessary radiation exposure
⦁ Genetic counselling and testing for at risk individuals
Best Doctor for Breast Cancer in Gurgaon know that breast cancer occurs when some breast cells start growing abnormally. These cells divide more rapidly than healthy cells and continue to form a lump or mass. The cell can spread through your breast to your lymph nodes or other parts of your body.
Best Doctor for Breast Cancer in Gurgaon says breast cancer that does not spread beyond the breast or axillary lymph nodes. This includes ductal carcinoma in situ and stage I, stage IIA, stage IIB and stage IIIA breast cancer.
Breast cancer has to be divided 30 times before it is felt. Until the 28th cell division, neither you nor your doctor can detect it by hand. As with most breast cancers, each split takes one to two months, so by the time you can feel the cancerous lump, the cancer may have been in your body for two to five years. Contact Cancer Surgery Gurugram surgery gurugram for breast Cancer treatment in Gurgaon.
Being a woman and growing up are the main risk factors for breast cancer. Studies have shown that the risk for breast cancer is due to a combination of factors. The main factors that affect your risk include being a woman and growing up. Most breast cancers occur in women who are 50 years or older. Contact Cancer Surgery Gurugram surgery gurugram for breast Cancer treatment in Gurgaon.