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BREAST CANCER: HOW BREAST SURGERY HAS UNDERGONE TRANSITIONS FROM EXTENSIVE RADICAL MASTECTOMY TO ORGAN PRESERVING SURGERY.

Surgery remains cornerstone of curative treatment for localized breast cancer. However, surgery has evolved over decades by hard work of surgeons. William Halstead was the great surgeon who explained the technique of radical mastectomy in 1894 and this surgery results in significant decrease in local recurrence. Over a time period modification were advised and it resulted in today’s popular technique of modified radical mastectomy. Addition of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy and hormone therapy has greatly improved the cure rate and survival. As the treatment evolved and cases are detected in early stages breast conservation surgery is becoming popular. In breast conservation tumor along with healthy margin of surrounding normal breast tissue is excised. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is technique for minimizing lymph node excision of axillary lymph nodes, thereby decreasing chances of lymphoedema. When sentinel node is negative, no further dissection of axillary lymph nodes is required.

For best results of breast cancer treatment and conservative surgery it is required to detect cancer in early stage. Breast cancer screening is an effective way. As the population is becoming more aware regarding disease, more effective surgical planning and treatments are opted, so heathy and happy population of survivors is common.

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